Phytochemical And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric
Phytochemical And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric have been used by human beings for medicinal purpose and even in modern times plant have formed the basis of many pharmaceutical in use (Tapsell et al., 2009).
Plants provides a vast array of secondary metabolites as defines against environmental stress or other factors like pest attacks, wounds and injuries the complete secondary metabolites produced by plants have found various therapeutic uses in medium from time immemorial (Pat et al, 2001).
Many of the modern medicine in the early history contains Descriptions of plants derived from phyto chemicals that have beneficial effects on long-term health when consumed by humans, and can be used to effectively treat human diseases (Tapsell et al., 2006).
At West 12,000 such compounds have been isolated so far, a number estimated to be less than 10% of the total chemical compounds in environmental drugs. Thus herbal medicines do not differ in terms of how they work (Tapsell et al., 2006). medicine plants is becoming more of main stream as improvement in analysis and quality control along with advantages in clinical research have shown the treatment and prevention of diseases (Abewff, 2008). The use of herbs to treat disease is almost universal among non-industrialized societies, and often more affordable than purchasing experiment modern pharmaceuticals. This enables herbal medicine to be as. Effective as conventional medicine but also gives them the same potential to cause harmful side effects (Lai et al., 2004).
Phytochemical are a natural bioactive compound found in various parts of plants, such as roots, term bark, leaves fruits etc. there are classified a primary or secondary constituent, according to their functions in plants metabolism (Lai et al., 2004). Secondary metabolisms are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective properties many higher plants produce economically important organic compounds such as oils, resins, tannins, natural rubber, gums, waxes, dyes, flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals and pesticides (Tapsellet al., 2006).
1.1 Aim and Objective
The work is therefore aimed at evaluating the phytochemical and GC-MS analysis of whitfieldia lateritia.
2.0 LITERSTURE REVIEW
2.1 Medicinal Plant
The use of plants as medicine predates written human history many of the herbs and species used by human to season food also yield useful medicinal compound (Lai and Roy, 2004).
Medicinal plant or herbs is a plant or part of plant used for its therapeutive properties. Hence herbalism (herbal medicine) involves the study and use of plant parts such as root and use of leaf for
medicine purposes (Tapell et al., 2006). Many of the pharmacenticals currently available to hysicians have a long history of use as herbal remedies including opium, Aspirin, digitalis, and quinine (Swain and Tony, 1968).
According to world health organization (WHO) approximately 25% of modern drugs used in the United States have been derived from plant.
Also according to WHO 80% of some Asian and African countries presently use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care (Srinivasan, 2005).
Varieties of active compounds have been isolated to be effective in defending against predators such as insects, fungi and some mammals.
Also some plant metabolite actions in human and which can be refined to produce drugs; example include root of quinine from cinchona, morphine and codeine from poppy and digoxin from the foxglove (Springbob, 2009). Toxic plants have been use in pharmaceutical development (Encyclopaedia Bitannica, 1993).
Moreover, among the 120 chemical compound isolated from plants that are used in modern medicine does it. However make use of many plant deriving compounds as the basis for evidence tested pharmaceutical drugs and phototherapy works to apply modern standard of off
effectiveness testing to herbs and medicine that are derived from plant/natural sources fabricant (Farnsworth, 2001).
Thereby, it can be concluded that herbal medicine do not differ greatly from conventional drugs in terms of how they work (Lai and Roy, 2004).
2.2 General Decription of Whitfieldia Lateritia
Whitfieldia lateritia is a flowering plant belonging to the family of acanthaceae. The leaves are simple opposite and decussate, stipues are lacking. The flowers are bisexual, zygomoephile, and usually are associated with conspicuous, often brightly lowered bracts the calyx is usually deeply 4-5 lobed or sometimes as highly reduced with more numerous minute Teeth. the corolla is sympetalous, usually 5- merous, mostly zygomorphic and commonly lipped (Stamp, 2008). The Androecium usually consists of 4 didynamous stamens only 2 stamens Adnate to the corolla tube or epigynous zone, alternate with lobes. The gynoecium consist of a single compound pistil of 2 carpel, a single style, and a superior ovary with locales each with usually 2-10 axile ovules in one or collateral vertical tiers an annubar nectal disk is usually found around the base of the ovary. The fruit is commonly an elastically dehiscent loculilicidal capsule (Swain, 1985). The seed stalk or funiculus of each seed is modified into a hook shaped jaculator or retinaculu that function in flinging out the seeds during dehiscent (Christopher, 2003).
Figure 1: Whitfieldia lateritia leaves with flower
2.3 Toxonomy of Whitfieldia Lateritia
Specific epithet Lateritia hook
(Tapsell et al., 2006)
2.4 Common Names of Whitfieldia Lateritia
Whitfieldia lateritia is commonly called “brick-coloured whitfieldia” especially in Sierra leone where it is a nature palnt. It can also be called Ogwu “obara” in Igbo, “Ogu eje” in Yoruba and “magani Yini” in Hausa language (Hamul et al., 2000). The shrub of whitfieldia latteritia prefer a half- Shady to shady situation on moist soil.
They tolerate temperatures only above at least 1oc.
2.5 Medicinal Uses of Whitfieldia Lateritia
The plant family acanthacaea has been recorded to be of medicinal values especially the species whitfieldia lateritia and whitfieldia elongata (Hamul eta al., 2000). The leaves of these plants have been used by traditional healer in the treatment of conditions like wounds, venereal disease and gastro intestinal infections. from test, both plants have been confirmed to have antimicrobial action (Moshi etal.,2009).the decoction from whitfieldia lateritia leaf has been used to boast haemathological parameters (Busman and Sharon, 2006; Yineger and Yewhalaw, 2007).
Pytochemistry is the chemistry of plants and their metabolic process also it is the branch of chemistry dancing with the chemical process associated with plants life and the chemical compounds produced by plant (Schiebinger et al., 2004).
These are chemicals derived from plants, in a narrower sense the terms are often used to describe the large number of secondary metabolic compounds found in plants. Many of these also exhibit a number of protective functions for human consumers. The term “phytochemical” refers to a wide variety of compounds made by plants but is used to described those compound that may affect human health and are found in plant-based food such as fruits, vegetables, bean and
grains also include the studies of how to extract, concentrate, analyze, standard, and preserve herbal products (Puekh et al., 2007).
Phytochemical are those bioactive chemicals that occur naturally in plants. The prefix phyto means “plant” on Greek containing chemicals that are responsible for organoleptic properties such as smell and odour of plant parts and products (Schiebinger et al., 2004).
The term phytochemical are also generally used to refer to those chemical constituents in plants that may have biological significance but are not established is essential nutrient (SEC. metabolites). They are found in term, bark for vitamins, levels, seed of plants major few examples are glycoside in main etc. Phytochemicals function as antioxidant, hormonal action. Timulation of enzyme interference of DNA replication, antibacterial effect and physical actions in human (Stamp, 2003).
And in plant, it play the role of defense mechanism against pests and disease caused by microorganism (Stamp, 2003).
Phytochemical may inhibit microorganism interference with some metabolic processes or may modulate gene expression and signal transduction pathway (Kris et al., 2002; Manson, and Surh, 2003).
Phytochamical may either be as chemotherapeutic or chemo-preventive agent with chemo-prevention referring to the use of agents to inhibit, reverse, or retard tumor genesis, in this sense chemo-preventive phytochemical may exhibits different actions (D’Incalci et al., 2005).
Some phytochemical mat exhibits different actions against bacterial strains (Ketzekidou et al., 2008).
Also many phytochemicals are antioxidants including carotenoid and flavoniod and some of these phytochemical with antioxidants properties tends to protect the cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species called free radical such as super oxide, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals etc that results to oxidative stress leading to cellular damage (Mattson and Cheng, 2006) but natural antioxidants play a key role in health maintenance and prevention of the chronic an degerativedisease such a diabetic pregnancy, carcinogenesis, DNA damaging and ageing (Uddin et al., 2008; Jayasi et al., 2009).
Flavonoid, terpenoid, phenols are rich in anoxidant activity (Cai and Sun, 2003) also many plants such as leafy vegetabl, ascorbic acid, phenolic, flavonols has the ability to scavenge the free radicals in human body. Industrially, processed food are likely to contain fewer phytochemicals and unprocessed food. Absence or deficiency of phytochemicals in processed food may contribute to increase in risk of preventable disease (Lui, 2004).